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Closure of a Prosthetic Mitral Valve Paravalvular Leak Using a Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Amplatzer Occluder Device

Oreoluwa Oladiran, Gabriel Areoye, Adeolu O. Oladunjoye, Olubunmi O. Oladunjoye, Eric Elgin, Anthony Licata

(Cardiovascular Division, Reading Hospital – Tower Health, West Reading, PA, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e928003

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.928003

BACKGROUND: Paravalvular leaks (PVL) are becoming more commonly experienced in clinical practice due to the increasing number of mitral valve replacements performed. There are about 182 000 valve replacements performed annually, with a 5-15% prevalence rate of paravalvular leaks. Due to increased mortality associated with surgical repair, percutaneous transcatheter closure procedures are increasingly being performed as an alternative to repeat surgery.
CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 52-year-old woman with past medical history of mitral valve endocarditis who developed worsening acute heart failure 1 month after surgical bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement. Transesophageal echocardiography at the time revealed dehiscence of the bioprosthetic mitral valve and severe mitral regurgitation. She subsequently had emergent surgical bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and annular reconstruction. The post-operative course was complicated by increasing dyspnea and lower-extremity edema, with recurrent pericardial tamponade requiring placement of a pericardial window. Based on her multiple comorbidities, most notably the concomitant right ventricular failure with severe pulmonary hypertension and prior pericardial patch repair with compromise of her mitral valve annulus, she was deemed inoperable for re-do surgery and eventually underwent a successful percutaneous closure of the mitral paravalvular leak with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) Amplatzer occluder device. The patient made good recovery and was discharged home a few days after the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: Although use of the Amplatzer VSD occluder device for this indication currently remains off-label, our report supports the use of the VSD occluder device in this subset of patients considering the high mortality rates associated with repeat surgical procedure.

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