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A 61-Year-Old Man with SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Venous Thrombosis Presenting with Painful Swelling and Gangrene of the Lower Limb Consistent with Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens

Abayomi Bamgboje, Jungrak Hong, Savi Mushiyev, Gerald Pekler

(Department of Internal Medicine, NYC Health+Hospitals/Metropolitan, New York City, NY, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e928342

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.928342

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease with an evolving understanding of its clinical manifestations, complications, and therapeutic implications. Thromboembolic disease and coagulopathy are common and have been seen in COVID-19 patients. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens had been reported in previous cases associated with malignancy which is a known cause of a procoagulable state. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may also induce a procoagulable state and be associated with PCD.
CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old man presented with a painful, swollen limb and gangrene, findings consistent with a diagnosis of PCD due to venous thrombosis. The patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection after a nasopharyngeal swab sample using the XPRSARS-COV2-10 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction kit.
He had bilateral leg swelling with a gangrenous left fourth digit in the presence of a palpable peripheral pulse. His venous duplex showed bilateral acute deep venous thrombosis, whereas his arterial Doppler scan was normal and his skin biopsy was negative for vasculitis. One of our screening blood tests was suggestive of an antiphospholipid-like syndrome. These clinical and radiologic findings were consistent with PCD. This patient was promptly anticoagulated; other supportive treatments were also initiated. He had a significant resolution of his pedal swelling with the associated revitalization of his previously gangrenous toe.
CONCLUSIONS: This case report shows the importance of testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients who present with unusual thrombotic symptoms and signs and highlights the potential severity of these thrombotic complications.

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