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Development of Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated with Essential Thrombocythemia

Masahiro Ishikura, Akihiro Endo, Kaito Koshino, Yuzo Kagawa, Kazuaki Tanabe

(Division of Cardiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Shimane, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e928409

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.928409

BACKGROUND: Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a risk factor both for bleeding caused by abnormal platelet function and for thrombus formation caused by excessive platelet proliferation. We present a rare case of alveolar hemorrhage after dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), a serious bleeding complication of antithrombotic therapy, in a patient with an acute myocardial infarction complicated by ET.
CASE REPORT: A 75-year-old man was treated for ET. He experienced an acute myocardial infarction, and an emergent percutaneous coronary intervention was subsequently performed. DAPT was started just before stent implantation. Because a left ventricular thrombus was suspected in spite of DAPT, anticoagulant therapy with heparin was added. On day 7, a large amount of hemoptysis was observed, and alveolar hemorrhage was diagnosed. Although the antithrombotic treatment was de-escalated from DAPT to single antiplatelet therapy, no stent thrombosis or recurrence of alveolar hemorrhage was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: In ET patients, reduced platelet function due to thrombocytosis and strong antithrombotic therapy may cause an excessive bleeding risk. Switching from DAPT to antiplatelet monotherapy at the early stage of stent implantation is a treatment option in situations in which excessive bleeding risk is a concern.

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