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Combined Liver-Lung-Kidney Transplant in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis

Lori Shah, Geoffrey Dube, Lorna Dove, Amy C. McLaughlin, Jean Emond, Lloyd Rattner, Frank D'Ovidio, Emily DiMango

(Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York City, NY, USA)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e930867

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.930867

BACKGROUND: Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) constituted approximately 10% of organ transplants in 2019, with the majority of transplants consisting of bilateral lung transplant. Multiorgan transplantation in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) is rare, and usually involves the liver and lung combined. Since kidney disease is not a common sequela of CF, the need for renal transplant in individuals who have not previously undergone lung transplant is uncommon.
CASE REPORT: We report a case of successful liver-lung-kidney transplant in a 23-year-old man with CF-related liver and lung disease, who developed renal failure due to IgA nephropathy. He required renal replacement therapy during the months before transplantation. After discussions among the liver, lung, and renal transplant teams, the patient was listed for multiorgan transplantation. An appropriate single donor for all organs was identified, and the patient underwent transplantation. The patient required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) perioperatively, with total operative time of 23 h and 1 min. Postoperative course was notable for hemothorax and medication-induced acute tubular necrosis, which resolved without the need for renal replacement therapy. Liver and lung graft function was normal at 6 months, and renal function was minimally reduced.
CONCLUSIONS: Triple organ transplantation in CF is a viable option for individuals with multiorgan failure who may otherwise not qualify for single/dual organ transplantation. Use of ECMO and CRRT can be necessary during the long operative procedure. Optimal immunosuppression protocols for this group of patients has not yet been established, and ethical concerns regarding multiorgan transplantation exist.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Multiple Organ Failure, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic

This paper has been published under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) allowing to download articles and share them with others as long as they credit the authors and the publisher, but without permission to change them in any way or use them commercially.
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