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A Case of Rapid Transformation from Hydatidiform Mole to Invasive Mole: The Importance of β-hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) Serum Levels in Follow-Up Evaluation

Ali Budi Harsono, Yudi Mulyana Hidayat, Gatot Nyarumenteng Adhipurnawan Winarno, Aisyah Shofiatun Nisa, Firas Farisi Alkaff

(Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran-Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e931156

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.931156

BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of disorders consisting of premalignant (ie, complete [CHM] and partial hydatidiform moles [PHM]) and malignant conditions (ie, invasive moles, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumors, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor). If GTD persists after initial treatment and has persistent elevated beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG), it is referred to as post-molar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (pGTN). To date, there is no detailed information regarding how fast invasive moles can develop from CHM. However, the risk of developing any pGTN from CHM is rare within 1 month and is greatest in the first 12 months after evacuation, with most cases presenting within 6 months.
CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 46-year-old primigravida woman with rapid transformation of an invasive mole. In the beginning, the patient had a chief concern of a uterus size greater than the gestational dates. Laboratory evaluation showed high ß-hCG serum level (>300 000 mIU/mL), and ultrasonography evaluation revealed a hydatidiform mole. Suction evacuation and curettage procedures were then performed. Pathology evaluation afterwards revealed a complete hydatidiform mole without any sign of malignancy. Twenty-two days afterwards, the patient came to the emergency room with vaginal bleeding. ß-hCG serum level was high (53 969 mIU/mL), and ultrasonography examination showed the presence of fluid filling the uterine cavity. The patient was then diagnosed with GTN, and hysterectomy was chosen as the treatment of choice. After the surgery, her ß-hCG serum level gradually reverted back to normal.
CONCLUSIONS: Invasive moles can develop less than 1 month after suction evacuation and curettage procedure for CHM. Serial ß-hCG serum level evaluation according to the guideline should be performed to prevent late diagnosis, which could lead to the development of metastasis and worsen the prognosis.

Keywords: gestational trophoblastic disease, Hydatidiform Mole, Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive

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