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Multiple Gastric Carcinomas Associated with Epstein-Barr Virus and Helicobacter pylori: A Thought-Provoking Case

Tomohide Hori, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Hideki Harada, Michihiro Yamamoto, Masahiro Yamada, Takefumi Yazawa, Ben Sasaki, Masaki Tani, Asahi Sato, Hikotaro Katsura, Yasuyuki Kamada, Ryotaro Tani, Ryuhei Aoyama, Yudai Sasaki, Masayuki Shintaku, Yoko Iwasa, Masazumi Zaima

(Department of Surgery, Shiga General Hospital, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan)

Am J Case Rep 2021; 22:e931668

DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.931668


BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infections are associated with gastric carcinoma (GC). We present a thought-provoking case of multiple GCs associated with EBV and HP infections.
CASE REPORT: HP infection was incidentally detected in an asymptomatic 60-year-old man. Upper endoscopy revealed gastric “kissing” ulcers. The lesions were located in the body of the stomach and measured 25 and 27 mm, respectively. They were diagnosed on pathology as moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. Imaging revealed no enlarged lymph nodes or distant metastatic lesions. Distal gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed and surgical cure was obtained. The multiple GCs were categorized on pathology as infß ly0 v0 pT1b(SM)UL1N0M0H0P0CY0 pStage IA according to the Japanese classification and as T1bN0M0 Stage IA according to the tumor, node, metastasis classification. Pathological examination revealed remarkable lymphocytic infiltration into the stroma, as shown by in situ hybridization of EBV. These lymphocytic infiltrations were observed only at the sites of GC. In the immunohistochemical examination, in situ hybridization of EBV was positive for EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. Hence, an unexpected relationship between EBV infection and multiple GCs was suggested by pathology. Quantitative determination of EBV DNA in peripheral blood was normal postoperatively. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not recommended. HP eradication therapy was successful. The patient remained asymptomatic and developed no recurrence or metastasis for 3 years after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: This thought-provoking case suggests that coinfection with EBV and HP increases GC occurrence.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Herpesvirus 4, Human, Neoplasms, Stomach

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